Virtual Presenters

Is there a gender gap in academic achievment?
Matilde Alvim, Southern Utah University

Faculty Mentor: Joshua Price, Southern Utah University


The purpose of this research is to detect whether gender is a meaningful predictor of academic success. In other words, is there a gender gap in college achievement. Through The Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study (BPS), which survey around 22,500 students at the end of their first year, and then three and six years after them first starting their postsecondary education. Together with linear regression models we measure the impact of gender on the three variables used to quantify student success: number of courses failed, months until graduation and overall GPA, controlling for student and institution characteristics. Based on previous literature, gender is expected to account for a percentage of academic success, the value of that percentage changing between studies.



Multivalent HPMA Copolymer-Peptide Conjugate for Crosslinking DR5 and Induction of Apoptosis
Jaden Arnold, University of Utah
Jiahui Li, University of Utah
Jiyuan Yang, University of Utah
Jindřich Kopeček, University of Utah

Faculty Mentor: Jindrich Kopecek , University of Utah


Death Receptor 5 (DR5), a cell surface receptor, is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily. It is expressed on cancerous cell types of colon, breast, and pancreatic cancers and rarely on healthy cells. The binding of ligands to DR5 induces receptor oligomerization, formation of DISC (death-inducing signaling complex), and activation of procaspase 8 followed by activation of executor downstream caspases 3 and 7. Trimerization of DR5 is needed to form a functional death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) and caspase 8 activation. The disappointing clinical efficacy of anti-DR5 antibodies stimulated research of multivalent agonists that can cluster DR5 receptors.
Our design of a new member of the Drug-free macromolecular therapeutics (DFMT) system is based on water-soluble polymeric carrier, N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer, and a DR5 binding peptide. In the first validation of the concept, we synthesized HPMA copolymer grafted with multiple copies of DR5 binding peptide (cyclic WDCLDNRIGRRQCVKL) and demonstrated the efficiency of the multivalent conjugate in apoptosis induction in human colon carcinoma COLO205 cells.
The polymerizable derivative of the DR5-binding peptide, MA-GGWDCLDNRIGRRQCVKL (MA is methacryloyl) was synthesized by solid phase peptide synthesis and the manual Fmoc/tBu strategy using Rink Amide resin. It was copolymerized with HPMA using RAFT (reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer) copolymerization yielding a multivalent HPMA copolymer-DR5-binding peptide conjugate (P-DR5: Mw = 66.5 kDa; Mw/Mn = 1.12; 6.5 peptides per macromolecule). Apoptosis initiation in COLO205 cells was evaluated in cell culture. P-DR5 induced 80% apoptosis. The mechanism of apoptosis involved the extrinsic apoptotic pathway as demonstrated by the determination of activation of caspase 8 and caspase 3, ROS (reactive oxygen species) formation, and mitochondrial depolarization. In conclusion, the data clearly indicate the importance of multivalency in apoptosis induction mediated by DR5 receptors. The efficacy of P-DR5 is of value since it demonstrates that the DFMT concept could be also applied to solid tumors. The research was supported in part by UROP Fellowship (to JA) and by NIH grant RO1 CA246716 from the National Cancer Institute (to JK).


Savor Cookbook Ethnography
Sophia Chernosky, University of Utah

Faculty Mentor: Adrienne  Cachelin, University of Utah

Food Systems and Communities

Understanding the ways marginalized communities grow, prepare, and consume food is critical in working towards food justice, or communities exercising their right to grow, sell and eat food that is fresh, nutritious, affordable, culturally appropriate and grown locally with care for the well-being of the land, workers, and animals. In order to work towards food justice, we must understand individual’s access to food and their relationship to food, especially in communities that have been identified as areas of low access by the USDA. From January through March, we will work in the Glendale Community Kitchen conducting and transcribing interviews. During these interviews we will also plan to take pictures that can be added to the community-facing cookbook. Through April and early May, we will conduct a qualitative analysis of the data. Our work will be centered at the Glendale-Mt. View Community Learning Center (CLC) in Salt Lake City. This census tract is in one of the more diverse areas of Salt Lake City with only 26% of its population identifying as White. Demographic and food access statistics have led food justice advocates to focus their attention on the availability of food in this area. However, as discovered while collecting data for the first Savor Cookbook Ethnography Project, it is highly important to incorporate culturally based foodways instead of solely focusing on access-based solutions. In the second book in this series, we will explore not only the cultural significance of foodways but also the significance of growing and cultivating specific crops in community and private gardens. Ethnographic interviews can be a useful tool to explore the significance of an individual’s culture to their practices surrounding food. By highlighting the lived experiences of marginalized populations that are historically unheard , we can work to shift away from dominant narratives that further marginalize these populations). We hope to challenge deficit-centered narratives to foster food sovereignty for this population. As we learn about obstacles to food justice from those that are experiencing these injustices, from globalization, discrimination, land availability, and monopolization of food commodities we hope to also understand more about specific place-based barriers and opportunities. Narratives about which obstacles are most relevant to the population can inform food justice advocates and policymakers about the most meaningful ways to shift towards a more just food system. Place perspectives to food systems allow contextualization of concerns regarding the safety, health, equity, and sustainability of food. This is a necessary framework for challenging current food injustice.


Perception of University Value Based on Naming Style
Madison Collins, Utah State University

Faculty Mentor: Matthew Meng, Utah State University

Food Systems and Communities

In this study, we aimed to assess whether the placement of ‘university’ within the universities’ naming correlates significantly with the perception of the university. We looked at two naming styles, “University of [Location]” and “[Location] of University”. To ascertain whether there was a preference in naming style we classified universities based on their naming styles and determined whether there is a significant correlation between naming style and rank. Rising tuition costs, the shift to online learning, and widespread funding cuts have increased competition among universities for prospective students and dwindling resources. Understanding the public perception of a universities’ brand is more critical than ever to keep current students and attract prospective students in an increasingly competitive marketplace. Many universities have turned to marketing as a tool to attract new students and manage public perception through branding. A university’s name is the most visible element of its brand, and a potential foot in the door to any further investigation from prospective students and faculty. Managing perception surrounding a university’s name could offer Universities a significant competitive advantage. University branding is a snapshot of the value, prestige, and opportunity a university has to offer. Cultivating a university brand that quickly relays the value of the university while differentiating it from the competition requires parsing out perceptions surrounding a university’s brand and refining the most visible elements. Individuals often form their opinions about organizations based on a series of perceptions rather than merit or research. (Vigoda-Gadot et al., 2003) Uncovering common perceptions associated with university branding is imperative to efficacious marketing to obtain prospective students and researchers. In 2018, higher education institutions received $1.068 trillion in revenue from federal and non-federal funding sources. (Data Lab, 2019) Allocation of funding is disproportionately focused on universities with high university rankings. Despite the amount of funding and rising tuition costs, many Universities are facing shutdown or consolidation. Since 2016 75 not-for-profit universities have been closed or consolidated in the USA. (Higher Ed, 2022) In 2014 researchers found that a traditional heraldic corporate visual identity (CVI) increased perceived trustworthiness in a university representative, but failed to find a strong correlation between a university name and its perception. (Idris, 2014) Research surrounding university renaming as a branding strategy has not been fully explored. In Italy, a study looking at ‘city’ versus ‘region’ naming styles found that naming city-of-location naming strategy was preferred to the region-of-location naming strategy, but no previous research has looked at the placement of ‘University’ within a university’s name and the associated potential benefit to choosing one over the other. (Peluso & Guido, 2011)

Vigoda-Gadot, E., Vinarski-Peretz, H., & Ben-Zion, E. (2003). Politics and image in the organizational landscape: An empirical examination among public sector employees. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 18(8), 764-787.
Bick, G., Jacobson, M., & Abratt, R. (2003). The corporate identity management process revisited. Journal of Marketing Management, 19(5), 835-855.
de Chernatony, L., & Dall’Olmo Riley, F. (1998). Modelling the components of the brand. European Journal of Marketing, 32(11/12), 1074-1090.
Balmer, J. (1998). Corporate identity and the advent of corporate marketing. Journal of Marketing Management, 14(5), 963-996.
Balmer, J. (2001). Corporate identity, corporate branding and corporate marketing: Seeing through the fog. European Journal of Marketing, 35(3/4), 248-291.
Balmer, J., & Gray, E. (2003). Corporate brands: What are they? What of them? European Journal of Marketing, 37(7/8), 972-997.
Balmer, J., & Soenen, G. (1999). The acid test of corporate identity management. Journal of Marketing Management, 15(1), 69-92.
Pringle, H., & Thompson, M. (1999). Brand spirit: How cause related marketing builds brands. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.
Alessandri, S. (2001). Modelling corporate identity: A concept explication and theoretical explanation. Corporate Communications: An International Journal, 6(4), 173-182.
Melewar, T., & Jenkins, E. (2002). Defining the corporate identity construct. Corporate Reputation Review, 5(1), 76-90.
Nanath, Krishnadas, Ali Sajjad, and Supriya Kaitheri. “Decision-making system for higher education university selection: Comparison of priorities pre-and post-COVID-19.” Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education (2021).
Stern, B. (2006). What does brand mean? Historical analysis method and construct definition. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 34(2), 216-223.



Correlations between semantic memory and activities of daily living tested on the Independent Living Scale of  cognitively impaired patients
SuYeon Gwak, University of Utah

Faculty Mentor: Matthew Euler, University of Utah

In patients with mild dementia, it has been shown that the Independent Living Scale (ILS), which objectively assesses an individual’s ability to perform activities of daily living, positively correlates with multiple measures of cognition, including attention, visuospatial skills, memory, and executive functioning. However, how performance on the ILS relates to experimental measures of semantic memory functions is less clear. This study aimed to clarify how specific activities of daily living, as tested by the ILS, related to semantic memory functioning in people with early Alzheimer’s disease. Nine individuals with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and four individuals with early Alzheimer’s disease (MCI; a condition linked to an increase for Alzheimer’s), and 29 controls completed the [Managing Money] and [Health and Safety] of the ILS, in addition to the Word Pair Judgment (WPJ) test as a measure of semantic memory functioning. A one-way ANOVA was used to examine the effect of participant groups on WPJ performance. I also ran a Pearson Correlation between WPJ accuracy and ILS performances in the whole sample. The result indicated that the patients with Alzheimer’s disease scored less accuracy on the Word Pair Judgment test than the intact group and those with MCI (P<.001). Additionally, the AD group took more reaction time than the intact group and those with MCI (P=.002). Also, patients who performed worse on the Word Pair Judgement test got lower ILS scores. Correlation test results showed a positive correlation between semantic memory tested on WPJ accuracy and both the ability [Managing Money] and [Health and Safety] (P<.001, P<.001). There was also a negative correlation between reaction time on WPJ and both abilities (P<.001, P=.002). This result provides new insights that cognitively impaired patients with worse verbal skills are more likely to have difficulties managing finances and health and safety.


Disabled, Not Disqualified: Ableism in Recruitment and Retention for Game Development
Will Loxley, University of Utah

Faculty Mentor: Fernando Rodríguez, University of Utah


Game development careers are widely regarded as turbulent due in part to industry reliance on periods of compulsory overtime, otherwise known as crunch (Cote & Harris 2020). Game developers (GDs) who crunch are affected in quantifiably detrimental ways, including psychosomatic health issues and the degradation of work satisfaction (Niemelä 2021). And yet, the number of GDs reporting recent use of crunch has nearly doubled in just two years (IGDA 2021). Crunch has been a continuously popular topic of study in gaming circles for the 2000s (Dyer-Witheford & de Peuter 2006); however, despite disabled individuals being especially vulnerable to the harmful labor practice, the interactions between crunch and the 25% of professional GDs who self-report as having a disability (IGDA 2019) are explored significantly less. This paper documents how game companies publicly and actively recruit disabled people as candidates for the next generation of the games industry – if at all. By utilizing a personal perspective of a prospective disabled GD, this project conducts an institutional ethnography addressing game company recruitment efforts which operate under the incorrect assumption that recruitment is an inherently neutral or objective practice. The research centers disabled GDs through the analysis of game companies’ public facing documentation via document analysis to determine if disabled people are excluded from being talent recruitment (Hoque & Bacon 2021). This paper reports on the results of said analysis and the related personal findings of the disabled GD and researcher. The results will suggest high-level improvements for online game company recruitment practices so as to better represent internal values and bolster the potential pool of applicants. The results will also inform future research on identifying industry norms which negatively affect recruitment and retention for disabled GDS.
Cote, & Harris, B. C. (2020). ‘Weekends became something other people did’: Understanding and intervening in the habitus of video game crunch. Convergence (London, England), 27(1), 161-176.
Dyer-Witheford, N., de Peuter, G. (2006). “EA Spouse” and the Crisis of Video Game Labour: Enjoyment, Exclusion, Exploitation, Exodus. Canadian Journal of Communication, 31(3), 599-617.
Hoque, K., Bacon, N. (2021). Working from home and disabled people’s employment outcomes. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 60(1), 1-251.
Niemelä, J. (2021). A Systematic Mapping Study of Crunch Time in Video Game Development. University of Oulu. Retrieved from\\:nbnfioulu-202106178507.
Game Developers Association. Retrieved from
Weststar, J., Kwan, E., Kumar, S. (2019). Developer Satisfaction Survey 2019. International Game Developers Association. Retrieved from


Dear Sister Letter Campaign
Elizabeth Russo, University of Utah

Faculty Mentor: Annie Fukushima, University of Utah

Sexual violence is a term that encompasses crimes in which unwanted sexual contact or behavior is forced upon a victim without explicit consent. In Utah, the Department of Public Health finds that “rape is the only violent crime in Utah that is higher than the national average” (Utah Department of Health, 2021). This is particularly concerning considering that all other violent crimes, including homicide, aggravated assault, and robbery are two to three times lower than the national average (Utah Department of Health, 2021). One in every three Utah women has been sexually assaulted, and the state’s higher rate of rape than the national average makes sexual assault a serious problem in Utah (Madsen et al., 2016). Sexual assault causes intense emotional and physical pain in victims through depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, self-harm, sexually transmitted infections, substance abuse, dissociation, eating disorders, sleeping disorders, or suicide (RAINN, n.d.). Past studies have found that a significant percentage, ranging from 35% to 75% of male sexual assault offenders have been victims of sexual assault themselves (Glasser et al., 2001; Johnston & Lambie, 2015; Wilcox et al., 2004). Not all survivors of sexual violence or rape become sexual offenders. This project proposes to understand the reasons why victims of sexual assault do not become sexual offenders. The purpose of this study is to identify ways women have impacted resiliency in male Utahan survivors of sexual assault who have not offended. Women are overwhelmingly the victims and men the perpetrators of sexual assault. Therefore, it is relevant for women to identify and understand how they may impact resilient factors of men which protect females from victimization by males. With Utah’s serious problem with sexual assault, it is even more relevant that a study be conducted focusing on Utah specifically.  If this study is successful in identifying what women’s role is in male resiliency, the findings of the study could be used to create more impactful prevention measures targeted towards individuals who experience sexual abuse in Utah. Additionally, the findings of this study have the potential to create more successful rehabilitation programs for offenders of sexual assault who were once victims themselves in Utah.  In partnership with the Center for Student Wellness at the University of Utah, the campaign will be launched virtually on February 1st and will be live throughout the month of February. Participants will submit a letter written to a “sister”, or female identifying person who impacted their resiliency after a sexual assault. Participants will also have the option to submit a survey asking questions about the resources provided by the CSW. The research team will analyze the data from the surveys as they come in and thematically analyze the letters in March 2023.


Horizontal Gene Transfer in Staphylococcus Aureus
Julia Gilpin, Brigham Young University

Faculty Mentor: Brad Berges

Health and Medicine



Analysis of the relationship between tail fiber proteins and host range of 25 T1-like phages
Jonah Rallison, Brigham Young University
Parker Danielson, Brigham Young University
J. Ben gordon, Brigham Young University

Faculty Mentor: Jullianne Grose , Brigham Young University

Antibiotic resistance among bacterial infections is a growing concern in healthcare. In a 2013 report by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, it is estimated that in the US antibiotic resistant infections cause at least 23,000 deaths and an excess of 20 billion dollars in healthcare costs each year [1]. It has been noted that the most concerning strains contributing to the antibiotic resistance crisis are members of the family Enterobacteriaceae [2]. The use of bacteriophages as an additional measure to treat bacterial infections has recently increased in popularity as research has provided evidence of its efficacy. Phages are typically very selective to their host but have been known to infect close relatives of their target. It is hypothesized the specificity of the phage’s host range comes from the composition of its tail fiber protein(s) that are used to adsorb to a potential host [3]. A phage’s unique host range, as well as the factors contributing to that host range, must be taken into consideration if phage therapy is to be utilized. To better understand how phage tail fiber proteins affect the ability to infect various bacterial strains/species we conducted a host range analysis of 25 T1-like phages against 10 species of Enterobacteriaceae. The results of the host range analysis were then used in a study of the tail fibers of each of the 25 phages using tools such as NCBI BLAST, Phyre2, and phylogenetics to determine their effect on phage infection.



Experience Utah
Emery Hansen, Weber State University

Faculty Mentor: Kristen Arnold, Weber State University

Interior Design

Experience Utah focuses on the needs of individuals through mental, physical, and social aspects. It creates spaces both inside and outside for people to connect with others and experience the beauty of Utah. Some of this beauty incorporates a biophilic design which is proven to bring feelings of peace, and comfort (Cacique & Ou, 2022). Experience Utah is made up of the companies: Get outside, brewing for the Soul, a physical therapist office, and residential apartments all of which will be built in a historical building in Ogden Utah. This project will go through the phases of repurposing this beautiful historic building into another usable space. One of the focuses of this building is to make it more sustainable. We desire to do this by incorporating more ecofriendly material, make some updates for energy conservation and use, and make more use of natural resources such as water and light. To do this update on the energy use and conservation has been a focus with hope to incorporate more natural light (Nenad D, Dragoslav M, Miloš M, Jasna LJ, & Jelena A, 2018). Along with this incorporating acoustical qualities throughout the whole building to provide privacy for all the occupants of the building is another focus. Based on our research the building will be more populated if we take emphasis on the acoustical properties, especially for the residential part of the building (Zalejska-Jonsson, 2019).

Cacique, M., & Ou, S.-J. (2022, May). DOAJ. Retrieved from Biophilic Design as a Strategy for Accomplishing the Idea of Healthy, Sustainable, and Resilient Environments:
Nenad D, Š., Dragoslav M, Š., Miloš M, Č., Jasna LJ, Č.-T., & Jelena A, I.-Š. (2018, January). Re-use of historic buildings and energy refurbishment analysis via building performance simulation: A case study. Retrieved from DOAJ:
Zalejska-Jonsson, A. (2019, January). Perceiv


Effects of time-restricted feeding (TRF) and calorie restriction (CR) on heart function in mice.
Noah Johnson, University of Utah

Faculty Mentor: Amandine Chaix, University of Utah

Research question and purpose: Time-restricted feeding (TRF, in animal models) or eating (TRE, in humans) is a new diet intervention that limits food consumption to an 8-10h window daily during the active phase. Previous work has shown that feeding mice a high fat diet with a TRF regimen prevents the development of obesity and associated metabolic disorders otherwise associated with ad libitum feeding of this diet (Chaix, Cell Metabolism, 2014). Most TRF studies were performed in young mice fed ad lib or TRF for about 12 weeks. Whether TRF can mediated lifelong health benefits is unknown. Thus, an undergoing study in the Chaix lab aims to investigate the broad health benefits of time-restricted feeding (TRF) and calorie restriction (CR) compared to ad libitum feeding (ALF) of a western diet during the lifespan of the animals. Specifically, my project is to evaluate the effects of TRF compared to ALF or CR on heart biology in mice. High fat diet feeding can lead to ectopic deposition of lipids in the heart. In addition, cardiac overload can lead to fibrosis development that increase heart stiffness and can alter heart function. We hypothesize that TRF can limit both heart steatosis and fibrosis compared to ALF thus preserving heart functions. We set up to determine:
Goal 1: The extent of fibrosis in the heart of mice fed ALF/TRF/CR throughout their lifespan
Goal 2: The extent of lipid deposition in the heart of mice fed ALF/TRF/CR throughout their lifespan
Research methodology:
Male C57Bl/6J mice were fed a high fat diet ad libitum throughout their lifespan (ALF) whereas some were subjected to 9h TRF during the dark phase and some to 70% CR. Subsets of mice were sacrificed at 12, 18 and 24 months of age and organs were collected and flash frozen for later analysis.
Goal 1: Determine the extent of fibrosis in the heart of mice fed ALF/TRF/CR throughout their lifespan
To evaluate the extent of fibrosis in the heart, we set up to quantify the amount of hydroxyproline in the tissue. Hydroxyproline is a proxy of fibrosis since the over production of hydroxyproline is generally indicative of the degradation of connective tissue in a specific sample. Decreased levels of hydroxyproline are generally indicative of poor wound healing. They may also suggest a low-protein diet, may prevent optimal tissue maintenance, and lead to reduced collagen stability. Our preliminary results show a trend towards higher levels in ALF compared to TRF and CR at 18 months.   We will repeat with increased number of samples and compare the results over time. Future analysis will also include quantification by RT-qPCR of selected genes involved in fibrosis (Col1a1, Col1a2, Col1a3, Col6a3, Acta2) and inflammation (Il6, Il1b, Tnfa, CD68). RNA is currently being extracted and RT-qPCR being learnt from lab members. Goal 2: Determine the extent of lipid deposition in the heart of mice fed ALF/TRF/CR throughout their lifespan To evaluate the extent of steatosis in the heart, we will quantify the amount of triglycerides in the tissue. TG is a proxy of steatosis since accumulation of these is a sign of severe organ disease and poor organ health. In addition, we will analyze the expression of lipid metabolism genes by qPCR.
Conclusions and significance:
CVD is the leading cause of death worldwide urging for new therapeutic approaches. Metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for CVD and intervention that improve metabolic health hold the potential to reduce CVD burden. Our results will establish whether TRF can prevent steatosis and fibrosis in the heart and compare TRF benefits to CR in pre-clinical models. These results are very relevant since TRF is an easy to adopt lifestyle interventions and clinical trials so far suggest that long term compliance to TRE is higher than dietary restriction.


Designing for Disabilities
Katelyn Palmer, Weber State University

Faculty Mentor: Kristen  Arnold, Weber State University

Interior Design

Abilities, a non-profit organization with the aim of bettering the lives of those who are disabled requires a design with ADA in mind. Wayfinding can be stressful for those who are disabled. A designer has the ability to make this experience easier by reducing the complexity of a floorplan, minimizing energy expenditure by reducing the length of a path, creating landmarks that serve as reference points, improving signage through the use of pictograms, simple human figures, and contrasting colors, or even adding maps to help a user navigate (Jamshidi S, Ensafi M, Pati D, 2020).  Some of the best ways to help bring the disabled population out of poverty and improve their lives are through education and creating opportunities. According to a study done at Iowa State University (M.L Rands, 2017), classrooms can be designed to encourage active learning, collaborative learning, and social interaction. This can be achieved through moveable furniture that accommodates different instructional strategies, flexible seating and writing surfaces, and the integration of technological learning tools. Creating this type of learning environment helps students to better engage in what is being taught and aids in the retention of the material.  In designing a healing space for a variety of people, color is an important consideration. (M Costa, 2018) found that there is a preference for blue in interior environments among all groups. Lighter-colored walls are generally favored over darker walls and brighter shades are associated with positive emotions. Blue has been proven to elicit a calm, tranquil mood and aids in studying, which would be great for designing a space for Abilities. These 3 aspects of research will be implemented into this adaptive re-use project to ensure the best possible outcome for the occupants. Effortless wayfinding, a flexible learning environment, and preferred colors will aid in providing an environment for growth and healing of the disabled population.


Top 1 Cybersecurity Threat: Broken Access Control
Chan Woo Song, Utah Valley University

Faculty Mentor: Sayeed Sajal, Utah Valley University


Access control enforces certain policy so that the users can only act in the boundaries of allowed permissions. When it is broken, users can access information which they are not allowed to. According to OWASP top 10, broken access control has risen up to be the most concerning issue for cybersecurity. This research is going to emphasize what broken access control is and how vulnerable we are to it. Lastly, I am going to discuss what we can do to prevent broken access control from happening. This is going to be the main idea of this research. Different methods such as, model access controls, minimizing Cross-Origin Resource Sharing, log access control failures, and etc. are going to be are going to be the focus of this research. They are going to be backed up by trustable sources like peer reviewed articles and research papers.



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